Helen Toxopeus and Friedemann Polzin created the first deliverable for the Horizon 2020 project NATURVATION characterizing nature-based innovations from a business model and financing perspective. The literature study is based upon a structured review of ~100 peer-reviewed papers from the urban economics, planning and sustainability literatures. Successful nature-based urban innovation faces key challenges to obtain long term (private) financing due to inability to capture value from their delivery of ecosystem services.

The full paper as well as a short policy brief can be found here: